This chapter deals with (1) the background of the study; (2) statement of the problem; (3) purpose of the study; (4) significance of the study; (5) scope and limitation of the study; and (6) definitions of the key terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Learning text type is one of the main subjects in English lesson for junior high school students. Narrative text is one of text types which must be studied in junior high school, especially designed for graduate competences standard (SKL). Narrative text for reading is not only simply to entertain the students but also needs comprehension to learn and analyze the text. It is included comprehensive reading. The narrative text can be defined as a story that is created in a constructive format that describes a sequence of fictional events. Comprehensive reading can be defined as thinking process to get understanding of a writing. It is not easy for the students to get comprehension in narrative text. Teacher needs to apply the innovative teaching method in order to make them understand easier.
CBC (Competence Based Curriculum) is widely suggested for the teacher to use innovative technique. Technique is the whole of procedure which is implemented by the teacher (Harmer, 2002:78). Innovative means something new and full of creativity. CBC recommends cooperative structure in learning because the concept of basic cooperative structure in Indonesia is to enable the students held the discussion or conference based on the five principle of Indonesian democracy. Besides that, one of the theories underlying in CBC in the implementation of cooperative structure is constructivism. It can be defined as a process of constructing or building new knowledge in the mind concept students through experience (Saefuddin, 2008:168).
Considering constructivist principles show the learners to get new mind concept from the experience and interaction with their fellow students, teachers and families, therefore, teacher should make the students interact with the others by using cooperative structure. Nurhadi (2004:116) states some techniques or cooperative structures widely suggested and employed are:
1. Think-Pair-Share. Students individually think about a question posed by the teacher. They pair up to discuss it and eventually they share it with other pairs, and/or with other groups.
2. Numbered-Heads. Groups of 4–5 students are formed and each is given numbers. The teacher poses a question and the students think of the answer making sure each member gets it. The teacher calls out a number (e.g. 2) and each student numbered 2 is asked to give the answer.
3. Jigsaw. Groups of 4–5 students (home teams) are formed and each group is assigned a part of the material to learn and then to teach to the other members in the group.
A technique or cooperative structure commonly in high school used is jigsaw because it is considered as the efficient way to learn the material in peers (Aronson, 2009). Jigsaw technique is effective and efficient in reading subject especially about narrative text, because it is not necessary for the teacher to explain the whole theory about type of text or narrative. It is enough to explain the social function, then to ask the students to find themselves for further information. Because the material about narrative text has already been served in the students’ textbook, therefore, they can read themselves. Besides that, jigsaw is more interactive than traditional method explaining or lecturing in the comprehensive reading activities (Tamah, 2007:2).
The jigsaw design facilitates students’ interaction in the class enabling the students to value each other as contributors (Aronson, 2009). The students have already had the capability to get the knowledge and ready to share or contribute the knowledge based on constructivism views. Students can get new knowledge from working together with their friend as a team work. They can share knowledge with others.
The students in conducting interactional process, negotiate meaning is necessary to do concerning interaction process in class or society (Tamah, 2007:5). The interactionist argues that the students can get many input of learning language from the interaction process. The teacher is expected to organize the students in order to form the cooperative group learning. Then, the students can often do interaction with another. They discuss, share, and contribute knowledge each other. As a result, they get a lot of input from their group. The teacher merely facilitates them. Thus, it does not spend lots of time to explain. The students have to read and comprehend narrative text themselves in order to report to other members of the group.
Jigsaw is often done in SMP Kemala Bhayangkari 7 because based on CBC recommendation, the teacher should use an innovative technique. The school is the most favorite private school. It is the best private school in Porong. The school has some academic achievements such as to be second number of champion mathematics Olympiad, and has competed English debate in the regency level. The teacher usually gives assignments about narrative text and uses jigsaw technique. Then, the researcher wants to investigate the students' interaction pattern in this school during jigsaw technique is conducted by the teacher in comprehending reading for narrative text.
It is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique in order to know how far jigsaw technique can improve the students ability in narrative text reading.. Based on above explanation, the researcher tries to investigate the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique conducted by the teacher in conducting reading subject in narrative text.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Jigsaw technique is the efficient way to teach narrative text reading because it can save the teacher's energy and can make the students more comprehend by interacting with other students because the class situation is comfortable. It is important to measure the effectiveness of jigsaw technique.
This research problem can be stated as below:
1 How many percent of the students can improve their reading skill in narrative text?
2 How is the students mean score test due to jigsaw technique ?
3 How many students who get upper average of the score ?
4 How is the score of the ability to teacher apply jigsaw technique?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Based on the thesis statement, the purpose of the study can be stated as follows :
1 To know the effectiveness of using jigsaw Technique.
2 To the students average score in the test
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
Because this study is limited by time, fund, and facilities, thus, it is restricted as following:
1.4.1 Scope of the Study
To be more specific, this study merely focuses on the teacher application of jigsaw and students score test in order to can measure how big the rule of jigsaw can improve students’ reading ability.
1.4.2 Limitation of the Study
This study was conducted in SMP KEMALA BHAYANGKARI 7 PORONG. The limitation of this study is the sample of the study that is the students in the IX-3 class.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This papers hopefully can give contribution to the English teacher about the, In order to the teachers can open their mind about the students' capability to receive input from their interaction with their fellow students, and can share or contribute knowledge each other. As the result, the teacher should give many opportunities to the students in delivering their ideas from their team in discussion. The teacher should be more careful to monitor their students in doing interaction and the teacher can apply the jigsaw technique or group discussion well, effectively, and efficient. The result of this study is expected to make improvement in teaching English, especially in students’ cooperative learning and having great a communication skill. This study also is used to inform, other fellow students, students’ parent, the headmaster, and librarian in the school to serve more facility, source to study, and share the information each other. Then, the students can build their knowledge themselves and finally they can interact or corporate well in solving the assignment.
1.6 Definitions of the Key Terms
To avoid the misinterpretation, the researcher would define the below key
a. effectiveness refers to whether jigsaw technique can improve successfully the students ability in reading narrative text
b. Jigsaw technique refers to one of cooperative structure that facilitates the students to contribute or share the knowledge each other. It is like a puzzle fit each other.
c. Narrative text refers to a fiction text which involves a setting, a character, a plot, and a conflict.
To fulfill the requirement of the objective the study, the researcher will present four topics which are going to be discussed. These are (1) research design; (2) subject of the study; (3) research instrument; and (4) data analysis. The engagement of the research study, research design describes all of the involvement in the research. Subject of the study is concerning the source of data. Research instrument tells about the documentation, and the last is data analysis explains about the procedure to collect the data and to process them.
3.1 Research Design
The objective of this research is to know the effectiveness of jigsaw technique while it was carrying out by the teacher in conducting comprehensive reading in narrative text. Therefore, this research is proposed to know the improvement of the students' capability in doing communication or interaction with their fellow students to solve the task, and the pattern of interaction they used, which is given by the teacher based on the view of CBC (competence based curriculum) demand.
After jigsaw technique had been introduced as a teaching model in CBC and had been implemented by several cycles, the English teacher was recognizable, and the students could do well in jigsaw technique and can improve students ability, for example: to carry out interaction process. And the result is the students can do well in jigsaw technique such as discussion, sharing, and giving contribution knowledge each other. Thus, this study merely presented information concerning classroom interaction in jigsaw class. This study is descriptive quantitative. The quantitative research design is descriptive in that the researcher is interested in process, meaning and understanding gained through numeric data or number. The researcher expects to use descriptive quantitative study in order to get many precise data as soon as possible.
3.2 population and sample of the Study
The sample of this study was taken from the third grade students of SMP KEMALA BHAYANGKARI 7 PORONG, academic year of 2009/2010 of IX-3 class. because the students in IX-3 class after the researcher randomly select the loiter the IX-3 class were chosen .
There were forty six students involved in this study in each class. They were assigned to collect a friend to form a home group randomly. After they had formed a home group, each group consisted of six or seven students, the teacher gave the material about narrative text for each student in diverse segment. They had to scatter to form a new expert group which is appropriate their segment to be discussed.
The students were working the segment which has already given in their expert groups formed in the treatment of the jigsaw class. In each expert group, one expert group consisting of six students or seven was chosen from the expert groups formed altogether. There were seven expert groups from IX-3 class of SMP Kemala Bhayangkari 7. Exactly, the samples were students forty six students.
3.3 Research Instrument
To obtain the data, the researcher should use research instruments which were related to statement of the problem and relevant. The research instrument in this study is documentation.
The observational method is the primary technique for collecting data on nonverbal behavior. It deals with visual data collection. There are two chief type of observation; they are participant (a regular participant in the activity being observed) and non participant (dual role is generally not known to other participants. The researcher try to observe the teacher behavior when the teacher apply jigsaw technique, therefore the researcher can evaluate the use and the efficient of jigsaw technique. The major steps in observation are; decide upon the goal of the study, decide upon the group of subject to be observed, gain entry to the group ( or in case of laboratory observation, arrange to have the subjects enter the laboratory), gain rapport with the subject being studied, conduct the study by observing and recording field notes over a period of weeks, months or even years, deal with crisis that occur, such as confrontation with subjects who think you are some sort of spy, exit from the observational study, analyses data, and write a rapport presenting the finding. Because this research is quantitative, the researcher should use structure format in checklist form in order to get numeric data.
The questionnaire is a widely used and useful instrument for collecting survey information, providing structured, often numerical data, being able to be administered without the presence of the researcher, and often being comparatively straightforward to analyze There are several kinds of question and response modes in questionnaires, including, for example: dichotomous questions; multiple choice questions; rating scales; and open-ended questions. Questionnaires are categorized into two types: Structured: It has a fixed number of questions and a limited choice of answers. The respondents should choose one or more suitable answers. The aim of administering this questionnaire is to get facts. Unstructured: It consists a number of questions. The answers are in the form of essay and the content may vary depending on the respondents. The aim of administering this questionnaire is to explore something. Open-ended questions are questions in which responds categories are not specified, and fixed alternative or closed-ended questions are questions in which the respondents select one or more of the specific categories provided by the researcher Questionnaire will be delivered for the student whether their ability in reading narrative text improve or not. In this research use multiple choice questionnaires in order to students can easily answer the question and get numeric data
For getting numeric data the researcher use this formula :
N x 100
F = the number of students who answered can improve the ability
N = the total number of students
Therefore we can make the percentage between how many percent that the student can improve their ability in narrative text reading and students can not improve.
In tests, researchers have at their disposal a powerful method of data collection, an impressive array of tests for gathering data of a numerical rather than verbal kind. Test the conduct to measure the ability student before jigsaw had yet implemented and after jigsaw implement. For the validity and reliability we can correlate the student post test and pretest. To measure students’ test
we could use the following formula:
N x 100
A = the number of students who answered the item correctly
N = the total number of students who attempted the item
3.4 Data collection and Analysis
In this section, it is classified into two section (1) Data Collection; (2) Data Analysis.
3.4.1 Data Collection
The data collection about the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique which was conducted by the teacher in reading comprehensive narrative text class by using observation, questionnaire, and tesr, it were collected from 20 November 2009 until the end of the month.
3.4.2 Data Analysis
The obtained data from all of mentioned instrument above was calculated analyzed and interpreted based on the effectiveness of jigsaw technique theory as explained previously in the chapter two. The findings were used to answer the research question. First of all the data were calculated. The calculated data was then analyzed to find out the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique. Then, the analyzed data was made a conclusion.
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